Active Active Data Center Design
Data centers are vital in modern business operations, providing essential services such as web hosting, cloud computing, and data storage. However, many organizations have adopted redundant data centers with an active-active data center design to ensure their business operations remain uninterrupted during service outages or disruptions.
In today’s digital age, where businesses heavily rely on uninterrupted access to their applications and services, data center design plays a pivotal role in ensuring high availability. One such design approach is the active-active design, which offers redundancy and fault tolerance to mitigate the risk of downtime. In this blog post, we will explore the active-active data center design concept and its benefits.
- Active Active data center design
Active-active data center design refers to the configuration where two or more data centers operate simultaneously, sharing the load and providing redundancy for critical systems and applications. Unlike traditional active-passive setups, where one data center operates in standby mode, the active-active design ensures that both are fully active and capable of handling the entire workload.
- Redundant data centers
Redundant data centers are essentially two or more in different physical locations. This enables organizations to move their applications and data to another data center if they experience an outage. This also allows for load balancing and scalability, ensuring the organization’s services remain available.
Redundant data centers are generally located in geographically dispersed locations. This ensures that if one of the data centers experiences an issue, the other can take over, thus minimizing downtime. These data centers should also be connected via a high-speed network connection, such as a dedicated line or virtual private network, to allow seamless data transfers between the locations.
Before you proceed, you may find the following useful:
- Data Center Topologies
- LISP Protocol
- Data Center Network Design
- ASA Failover
- LISP Hybrid Cloud
- LISP Control Plane
Active active data center
Increased dependence on East-West traffic
- A key point: Video on LISP.
The following video gives you an overview of LISP and its functionality. We will discuss the Map Server and Map Resolver and the communication process on a LISP design network. A use case of LISP can be used to direct traffic for a functional, active active data center design enabling more efficient dynamic workload scaling.
Back to basics: Active-active Data Center Design Cisco.
At its core, an active active data center is based on fault tolerance, redundancy, and scalability principles. This means that the active data center should be designed to withstand any hardware or software failure, have multiple levels of data storage redundancy, and scale up or down as needed.
The data center also provides an additional layer of security. It is designed to protect data from unauthorized access and malicious attacks. It should also be able to detect and respond to any threats quickly and in a coordinated manner.
To ensure that the data center is functioning correctly, it is essential to have a comprehensive monitoring and management system in place. This system should be designed to track the performance of the data center, detect any problems, and provide the necessary alerting mechanisms. It should also provide insights into how the data center operates so that any necessary changes can be made.
Cisco validated design: Cisco active active data center design
Cisco has validated this design, which is freely available on the Cisco site. In summary, they have tested a variety of combinations such as VSS-VSS, VSS-vPV, and vPC-vPC and validated the design with 200 Layer 2 VLANs and 100 SVIs or 1000 VLANs and 1000 SVI with static routing.
At the time of writing, the M series for the Nexus 7000 supports native encryption of Ethernet frames through the IEEE 802.1AE standard. This implementation uses Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) cipher and a 128-bit shared key.
- A key point: Lab guide on Cisco ACI
In the following lab guide, we demonstrate Cisco ACI. To extend Cisco ACI, we have different designs, for example, multi-site and multi-pod. This type of design overcomes many challenges of extending a data center that we will discuss in this post, such as the challenges of extending layer 2 networks.
One crucial value of the Cisco ACI is the COOP database that maps endpoints in the network. The following screenshots show the synchronized COOP database across spines, even in different data centers. Notice that the bridge domain VNID is mapped to the MAC address. The COOP database is unique to the Cisco ACI.
The challenge: Layer 2 is weak.
The challenge of data center design is “Layer 2 is weak & IP is not mobile.” In the past, best practices recommended that networks from distinct data centers be connected through Layer 3 ( routing ), isolating the know Layer 2 turmoil. However, the business is driving the application requirements, changing the connectivity requirements between data centers. The need for active active data center has been driven by the following. It is generally recommended to have Layer 3 connections with path separation through Multi-VRF, P2P VLANs, or MPLS/VPN, along with a modular building block data center design.
Yet, some applications cannot function over a Layer 3 environment. For example, most geo clusters require Layer 2 adjacency between their nodes, whether for heartbeat and connection ( status and control synchronization ) state information or the requirement to share virtual IP.
MAC addresses to facilitate traffic handling in case of failure. However, some clustering products ( Veritas, Oracle RAC ) support communication over Layer 3 but are a minority and don’t represent the general case.
- Defining active active data centers
The term active-active refers to using at least two data centers where both can service an application at any time, so each functions as an active application site. The demand for active-active data center architecture is to accomplish seamless workload mobility and enable distributed applications along with the ability to pool and maximize resources.
We must first have active-active data center infrastructure for an active/active application setup. Remember that the network is just one key component of active/active data centers). An active-active DC can be divided into two halves from a pure network perspective:-
- Ingress Traffic – inbound traffic
- Egress Traffic – outbound traffic
Active Active Data Center and VM Migration
Migrating applications and data to virtual machines (VMs) are becoming increasingly popular as organizations seek to reduce their IT costs and increase the efficiency of their services. VM migration moves existing applications, data, and other components from a physical server to a virtualized environment. This process is becoming increasingly more cost-effective and efficient for organizations, eliminating the need for additional hardware, software, and maintenance costs.
Virtual Machine migration between data centers increases application availability, Layer 2 network adjacency between ESX hosts is currently required, and a consistent LUN must be maintained for stateful migration. In other words, if the VM loses its IP address, it will lose its state, and the TCP sessions will drop, resulting in a cold migration ( VM does a reboot ) instead of a hot migration ( VM does not reboot ).
As a result of the stretched VLAN requirement, data center architects started to deploy traditional Layer 2 over the DCI and, unsurprisingly, were faced with exciting results. Although flooding and broadcasts are necessary for IP communication in Ethernet networks, they can become dangerous in a DCI environment.
- Traffic tramboning
Traffic tromboning can also be formed between two stretched data centers, so nonoptimal internal routing happens within extended VLANs. Trombones, by their very nature, create a network traffic scalability problem. Addressing this through load balancing among multiple trombones is challenging since their services are often stateful.
Traffic tromboning can affect either ingress or egress traffic. On egress, you can have FHRP filtering to isolate the HSRP partnership and provide an active/active setup for HSRP. On ingress, you can have GSLB, Route Injection, and LISP.
Cisco Active active data center design and virtualization technologies
To overcome many of these problems, virtualization technologies can be used for Layer 2 extensions between data centers. They include vPC, VSS, Cisco FabricPath, VPLS, OTV, and LISP with its Internet locator design. In summary, we have different technologies that can be used for LAN extensions, and the primary mediums in which they can be deployed are Ethernet, MPLS, and IP.
- Ethernet: VSS and vPC or Fabric Path
- MLS: EoMPLS and A-VPLS and H-VPLS
- IP: OTV
Ethernet Extensions and Multi-Chassis EtherChannel ( MEC )
Requires protected DWDM or direct fibers and works between two data centers only. It cannot support multi-datacenter topology, i.e., a full mesh of data centers, but it can support hub and spoke topologies.
Previously, LAG could only terminate on one physical switch. Both VSS-MEC and vPC are port-channeling concepts extending link aggregation to two separate physical switches. This allows for creating L2 typologies based on link aggregation, eliminating the dependency on STP, thus allowing you to scale available Layer 2 bandwidth by bonding the physical links.
Because vPC and VSS create a single connection from an STP perspective, disjoint STP instances can be deployed in each data center. Such isolation can be achieved with BPDU Filtering on the DCI links or Multiple Spanning Tree ( MST ) regions on each site.
At the time of writing, vPC does not support Layer 3 peering, but if you want an L3 link, create one, as this does not need to run on dark fiber or protected DWDM, unlike the extended Layer 2 links.
Ethernet extension and Fabric path
The fabric path allows network operators to design and implement a scalable Layer 2 fabric allowing VLANs to help reduce the physical constraints on server location. It provides a high availability design with up to 16 active paths at layer 2, each path a 16-member port channel for Unicast and Multicast.
This enables the MSDC networks to have flat typologies, separating nodes by a single hop ( equidistant endpoints ). Cisco has not targeted Fabric Path as a primary DCI solution as it does not have specific DCI functions compared to OTV and VPLS.
Its primary purpose is for Clos-based architectures. But if you have the requirement to interconnect 3 or more sites, the Fabric path is a valid solution when you have short distances between your DCs via high-quality point-to-point optical transmission links.
Your WAN links must support Remote Port Shutdown and micro flapping protection. By default, OTV and VPLS should be the first solutions considered as they are Cisco-validated designs with specific DCI features, e.g., OTV can flood unknown unicast for specific VLANs.
IP core with Overlay Transport Virtualization ( OTV ).
OTV provides a dynamic encapsulation with multipoint connectivity of up to 10 sites ( NX-OS 5.2 supports 6 sites, and NX-OS 6.2 supports 10 sites ). OTV, also known as Over-The-Top virtualization, is a specific DCI technology enabling Layer 2 extension across data center sites by employing a MAC in IP encapsulation with built-in loop prevention and failure boundary preservation.
There is no data plane learning. Instead, the overlay control plane ( Layer 2 IS-IS ) on the provider’s network facilitates all unicast and multicast learning between sites. OTV has been supported on the Nexus 7000 since the 5.0 NXOS Release and ASR 1000 since the 3.5 XE Release. OTV as a DCI has robust high availability, and most failures can be sub-sec convergence with only extreme and very unlikely failures such as device down resulting in <5 seconds.
Locator ID/Separator Protocol ( LISP)
Locator ID/Separator Protocol ( LISP) has a lot of applications and, as the name suggests, separates the location and the identifier of the network hosts, making it possible for VMs to move across subnet boundaries while still retaining their IP address enables advanced triangular routing designs.
LISP works well when you have to move workloads and also when you have to distribute workloads across data centers, making it a perfect complementary technology for an active-active data center design. It provides you with the following:
- a) Global IP-Mobility across subnets for disaster recovery and cloud bursting ( without LAN extension ) and optimized routing across extended subnet sites.
- b) Routing with Extended subnets for Active / Active data centers and distributed clusters ( with LAN extension).
LISP answers the problems with ingress and egress traffic tromboning. It has a location mapping table, so when a host move is detected, updates are automatically triggered, and ingress routers (ITRs or PITRs) send traffic to the new location. From an ingress path flow inbound on the WAN perspective, LISP can answer our little problems with BGP in controlling ingress flows. Without LISP, we are limited to specific route filtering, meaning if you have a PI Prefix consisting of a /16.
If you break this up and advertise into 4 x /18, you may still get poor ingress load balancing on your DC WAN links; even if you were to break this up to 8 x /19, the results might still be unfavorable.
LISP works differently than BGP because a LISP proxy provider would advertise this /16 for you ( you don’t advertise the /16 from your DC WAN links ) and send traffic at 50:50 to our DC WAN links. LISP can get a near-perfect 50:50 conversion rate at the DC edge.
Benefits of Active-Active Data Center Design:
1. Enhanced Redundancy: With active-active design, organizations can achieve higher levels of redundancy by distributing the workload across multiple data centers. This redundancy ensures that even if one data center experiences a failure or maintenance downtime, the other data center seamlessly takes over, minimizing the impact on business operations.
2. Improved Performance and Scalability: Active-active design enables organizations to scale their infrastructure horizontally by distributing the load across multiple data centers. This approach ensures that the workload is evenly distributed, preventing any single data center from becoming a performance bottleneck. It also allows businesses to accommodate increasing demands without compromising performance or user experience.
3. Reduced Downtime: The active-active design significantly reduces the risk of downtime compared to traditional architectures. In the event of a failure, the workload can be immediately shifted to the remaining active data center, ensuring continuous availability of critical services. This approach minimizes the impact on end-users and helps organizations maintain their reputation for reliability.
4. Disaster Recovery Capabilities: Active-active data center design provides a robust disaster recovery solution. By having multiple data centers geographically distributed, organizations can ensure that their critical systems and applications remain operational even in a catastrophic failure at one location. This design approach minimizes the risk of data loss and provides a seamless failover mechanism.
Implementing an active-active data center design requires careful planning and consideration of various factors. Here are some key considerations:
1. Network Design: A robust and resilient network infrastructure is crucial for active-active data center design. Implementing load balancers, redundant network links, and dynamic routing protocols can help ensure seamless failover and optimal traffic distribution.
2. Data Synchronization: Organizations need to implement effective data synchronization mechanisms to maintain data consistency across multiple data centers. This may involve deploying real-time replication, distributed databases, or file synchronization protocols.
3. Application Design: Applications must be designed to be aware of the active-active architecture. They should be able to distribute the workload across multiple data centers and seamlessly switch between them in case of failure. Application-level load balancing and session management become critical in this context.
Active-active data center design offers organizations a robust solution for high availability and fault tolerance. Businesses can ensure uninterrupted access to critical systems and applications by distributing the workload across multiple data centers. The enhanced redundancy, improved performance, reduced downtime, and disaster recovery capabilities make active-active design an ideal choice for organizations striving to provide seamless and reliable services in today’s digital landscape.