Internet of Things Theory



Internet of Things Theory

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that has rapidly gained momentum in recent years, transforming the way we live and interact with technology. With the proliferation of smart devices, interconnected sensors, and advanced data analytics, IoT is revolutionizing various industries and reshaping our daily lives. In this blog post, we will explore the fundamental aspects of the Internet of Things and its potential impact on our future.

The Internet of Things refers to the interconnectivity of physical devices, vehicles, appliances, and other objects embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity. These devices are capable of collecting and exchanging data, enabling them to communicate and interact with each other without human intervention. IoT is transforming how we perceive and utilize technology, from smart homes and cities to industrial applications.


Highlights: Internet of Things Theory

  • The Transformation

The Internet is transforming, and this post discusses the Internet of Things Theory and highlights Internet of Things access technologies. Initially, we started with the Web and digitized content. The market then moved to track and control the digitized world with, for example, General Packet Radio Service ( GPRS ). 

Machine-to-Machine ( M2M ) introduces a different connectivity model and application use case. And now, we embark on Machine Learning, where machines can make decisions with supervised or unsupervised controls. This transformation requires new architecture and technologies, including event stream processing and 6LoWPAN range to support IoT connectivity.

  • The Move to SDN

Traditional networks start with a group of network devices and a box-by-box mentality. The perimeter was more a less static. The move to Software Defined Networking ( SDN ) implements a central controller, pushing networking into the software with the virtual overlay network. As we introduce the Internet of Things theory, the IoT world steadily progresses, and we require an application-centric model with distributed intelligence and time series data.


Internet of Things Theory.

Key Internet of Things Theory Discussion points:

  • Introduction to the Internet of Things.

  • Discussion of IoT use cases.

  • The challenges around IoT security.

  • Highlighting data flow and connectivity.

  • Dicussion on IoT access technologies.


Before you proceed, you may find the following helpful.

  1. OpenShift Networking
  2. OpenStack Architecture


  • A key point: Video on Edge Computing

Edge computing moves certain types of actions as closely as possible to the source of information. It is the point where the physical world interacts with the digital world. The decentralized approach of Edge computing is not trying to take over the centralized approach of cloud computing.

The two will be used together. The benefits of both architectures will be used in conjunction, allowing applications to run best depending on where they are positioned in the network.

Fog is the midpoint between IoT devices and the cloud. It may still have the same computing, storage, and network capabilities as the centralized cloud, except it is moved closer to the edge.



Internet of Things Theory and Use Cases

Applications of IoT:

The applications of IoT are vast and encompass various sectors, including healthcare, agriculture, transportation, manufacturing, and more. IoT is revolutionizing patient care in healthcare by enabling remote monitoring, wearable devices, and real-time health data analysis. The agricultural industry benefits from IoT by utilizing sensors to monitor soil conditions, weather patterns and optimize irrigation systems. IoT enables intelligent traffic management, connected vehicles, and advanced navigation systems in transportation, enhancing efficiency and safety.

Benefits and Challenges:

The Internet of Things offers numerous benefits, such as increased efficiency, improved productivity, enhanced safety, and cost savings. Smart homes, for instance, enable homeowners to control and automate various aspects of their living spaces, resulting in energy savings and convenience. IoT enables predictive maintenance, optimizing operations, and reducing downtime in the industrial sector.

However, with the vast amount of data generated by IoT devices, privacy and security concerns arise. Safeguarding sensitive information and protecting against cyber threats are critical challenges that need to be addressed to ensure IoT’s widespread adoption and success.

The Future of IoT:

The Internet of Things has only scratched the surface of its potential. As technology advances, we can expect IoT to become more sophisticated and integrated into our daily lives. The emergence of 5G networks will enable faster and more reliable connectivity, unlocking new possibilities for IoT applications. From smart cities that optimize energy consumption to personalized healthcare solutions, the future of IoT holds immense promise.


Back to Basics With the Internet of Things Theory

We need to examine use cases when introducing the Internet of Things theory. So, we know that IoT enables everyday physical objects, such as plants, people, animals, appliances, objects, buildings, and machines, to transmit and receive data—the practical use case for IoT bounds only to the limits of our imagination.

The devices section is where we will see the most innovation and creativity. For example, there has been plenty of traction in the car industry as IoT introduces a new era of hyperconnected vehicles. Connected cars in a mesh of clouds form a swarm of intelligence.

The ability to retrieve data from other vehicles opens up new types of safety information, such as black ice and high winds detection.

Internet of things theory
Diagram: Internet of Things theory.


No one can doubt that the Internet has a massive impact on society. This digital universe enables all types of mediums to tap into and communicate. In one way or another, it gets woven into our lives, maybe even to the point where people decide to use the Internet as a base point in starting their businesses. More importantly, the Internet is a product made by “people.” 

However, we are heading into a transformation stage that will make our current connectivity model look trivial. The Internet of Things drives a new Internet, a product made by “things,” not just people. These things or smart objects consist of billions or even trillions of non-heterogeneous devices. The ability of devices to sense, communicate, and acquire data help build systems that manage our lives better.

We are beginning to see the introduction of IoT into what’s known as smart cities. In Boston, an iPhone app called Catchthebusapp informs application owners of public transport vehicles’ location and arrival times. GPRS trackers installed on each vehicle inform users when they are running late.

This example proves that we are about to connect our planet, enabling a new way to interact with our world. The ability to interact, learn, and observe people and physical objects is a huge leap forward. Unfortunately, culture is one of the main factors for resistance.


Internet of thing Theory and IoT security

Due to IoT’s immaturity, concerns about its security and privacy are raised. The Internet of Things Security Foundation started in 2015 in response to these concerns. There is such a rush to market with these new devices security is often an afterthought.

This leaves holes and gaps for cyber-criminals to exploit. It’s not just cyber-criminals that can access information and data; it’s so easy to access personal information nowadays. This explains the rise in people utilizing Proxies to protect their identity and allow for some privacy while protecting against hackers and those wanting to obtain personal data. The IoT would benefit from this proxy service.

A recent article on the register claims that a Wi-Fi baby heart monitor may have the worst IoT security of 2016. All data between the sensor and base station is unencrypted, meaning an unauthenticated command over HTTP can compromise the system. Channels must be encrypted to overcome information and physical tampering.


Denial-of-sleep attacks

IoT also opens up a new type of DDoS attack called denial-of-sleep attacks that drain a device’s battery. Many of these devices are so simplistic in design that they don’t support sophisticated security approaches from a hardware and software perspective. Many IoT processors are not capable of supporting strong security and encryption.

IoT opens up the back door to potentially billions of unsecured devices used as a resource to amplify DDoS attacks. The Domain Name System ( DNS ) is an existing lightweight protocol that can address IoT security concerns. It can tightly couple the detection and remediation of DDoS tasks. In addition, analyzing DNS queries with machine-learning techniques predict malicious activity.


Internet of Things Theory: How Does it Work?

IoT is a concept, not a new technology. It connects data so applications can derive results from viewing the analytics. However, it’s a complex environment and not a journey a single company can take. Partnerships must be formed to offer a total data center-to-edge solution for a complete end-to-end solution.


Sense & Communicate

To have a thing be part of the Internet of Things, we must follow a few steps. At a fundamental level, we have intelligent objects that can “sense & communicate.” These objects must then be able to interact and collaborate with other things on the Internet.

These things or smart objects comprise a physical entity and a digital function. The physicals include sensory capabilities to measure temperature, vibration, and pollution data.

Sensors transmit valuable data to an Internet of Things Platform. The central IoT platform integrates data from many heterogeneous devices and shares the analytics with various applications addressing use cases that solve specific issues. The actuators perform a specific task – opening a window or a lock, changing traffic lights, etc.


Data Flow & Network Connectivity

The type of device depicts the chosen network connectivity. We have two categories: Wireless and Wired. For example, a hospital would connect to the control center with a wired connection ( Ethernet or Serial ), while other low-end devices might use a Low Power Short-Range network.

Low Power Short-Range networks are helpful for intelligent homes with point-to-point, star, and mesh topologies. Devices using this type of network range between tens to hundreds of meters. They require long battery life, medium density, and low bandwidth. The device type does depict the network. If you want the battery to last ten years, you need the correct type of network for that.


Fog computing

Machine learning and IoT go hand in hand. With the sheer scale of IoT devices, there is too much data for the human mind to crunch. This results in the analysis carried out on the fly between devices or distributed between gateways at the edge. Fog computing pushes processing and computation power down to the actual device.

This is useful if there are expensive satellite links and when it costs effective to keep computation power at the device level instead of sending it over network links to the control center.

It’s also helpful when network communications increase the battery consumption in the sensor node. We expect to see a greater demand for fog computing systems as the IoT becomes more widely accepted and incorporated.



Gartner released a report stating over 20 billion devices will participate in the Internet of Things by 2020. A person may have up to 5,000 devices to interact with. This type of scale would not be possible without the adoption of IPv6 and 6LoWPAN. 6LoWPAN Range stands for Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. It enables small, low-powered memory-constrained devices to connect and participate in IoT.

Its base topology has several mesh-type self-healing 6LoWPAN nodes connected to the Edge router for connectivity and integration to the Internet. The edge routers act as a bridge between the RF and Ethernet network.


The Internet of Things has emerged as a game-changer, revolutionizing the way we connect and interact with the world around us. With its ability to transform industries, improve efficiency, and enhance our daily lives, IoT is undoubtedly here to stay. However, as we embrace the opportunities presented by IoT, it is essential to address its challenges, ensuring the security and privacy of our interconnected world. The future holds immense potential for IoT, and we can look forward to a more connected and efficient world powered by the Internet of Things.


Matt Conran
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